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Custom SCM

Capistrano uses what it calls “SCM plugins” (Source Code Management), to deploy your source code from a central repository. Out of the box, Capistrano has three plugins to handle Git, Subversion, and Mercurial repositories.

Most Capistrano users are well-served by these default implementations. To choose an SCM, users add it to their Capfile, like this:

require "capistrano/scm/git"
install_plugin Capistrano::SCM::Git

It is also possible to provide a custom SCM plugin, in order to change how Capistrano checks out your application’s source code. SCM plugins can be packaged as Ruby gems and distributed to other users.

This document is a short guide to writing your own plugin. It applies to Capistrano 3.7.0 and newer.

1. Write a Ruby class that extends Capistrano::SCM::Plugin

Let’s say you want to create a “Foo” SCM. You’ll need to write a plugin class, like this:

require "capistrano/scm/plugin"

# By convention, Capistrano plugins are placed in the
# Capistrano namespace. This is completely optional.
module Capistrano
  class FooPlugin < ::Capistrano::SCM::Plugin
    def set_defaults
      # Define any variables needed to configure the plugin.
      # set_if_empty :myvar, "my-default-value"
    end
  end
end

2. Implement a create_release task

When the user runs cap deploy, your SCM is responsible for creating the release directory and copying the application source code into it. You need to do this using a task that is registered to run after deploy:new_release_path.

By convention (not a requirement), this task is called create_release.

Inside your plugin class, use the define_tasks and register_hooks methods like this:

def define_tasks
  # The namespace can be whatever you want, but its best
  # to choose a name that matches your plugin name.
  namespace :foo do
    task :create_release do
      # Your code to create the release directory and copy
      # the source code into it goes here.
      on release_roles :all do
        execute :mkdir, "-p", release_path
        # ...
      end
    end
  end
end

def register_hooks
  # Tell Capistrano to run the custom create_release task
  # during deploy.
  after "deploy:new_release_path", "foo:create_release"
end

3. Implement the set_current_revision task

Similar to how you defined a create_release, you should also define a set_current_revision task. The purpose of this task is to set a special variable that Capistrano uses to write to the deployment log.

# Your task should do something like this
set :current_revision, "..."

# Register this hook to ensure your task runs
before "deploy:set_current_revision", "foo:set_current_revision"

4. Use the plugin

To use your plugin, simply require the file where your plugin class is defined, and then use install_plugin.

# In Capfile
require_relative "path/to/foo_plugin.rb"
install_plugin Capistrano::FooPlugin

That’s it!

5. Distribute your plugin as a gem

Packaging and distributing Ruby gems is outside the scope of this document. However, there is nothing Capistrano-specific that needs to be done here; just create a standard gem that contains your plugin class.

Users can then install your plugin by adding its gem to their Gemfile:

gem "your-gem-name", :group => :development

And then add it the Capfile:

require "your-gem-name"
install_plugin YourPluginClass

6. Getting help

For more techniques and ideas, check out the implementations of the default Git, Subversion, and Mercurial plugins in the official Capistrano repository on GitHub. All three follow the same patterns described in this document.

Otherwise open a GitHub issue with your questions or feedback. Thanks!

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